Shenzhen is a major sub-provincial city located on the east bank of the Pearl River estuary on the central coast of southern Guangdong province, People’s Republic of China. It forms part of the Pearl River Delta megalopolis, bordering Hong Kong across the Sham Chun River to the south, Huizhou to the northeast and Dongguan to the northwest, and shares maritime boundaries with Guangzhou, Zhongshan and Zhuhai to the west and southwest across the estuary. Shenzhen’s cityscape results from its vibrant economy—made possible by rapid foreign investment following the institution of the policy of “reform and opening-up” in 1979. The city is a leading global technology hub, dubbed by media as the next Silicon Valley and China’s Silicon Valley. It was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world in the 1990s and the 2000s, and has been ranked second on the list “top 10 cities to visit in 2019” by Lonely Planet.